Journal Club Summary

Methodology Score: 3/5
Usefulness Score: 2.5/5

Question and Methods: This tertiary-care centre, placebo controlled RCT examined whether nasally inhaling isopropyl alcohol provides better nausea relief than normal saline.

Findings: At 10 mins, inhaled isopropyl alcohol offers increased nausea relief compared to normal saline (effect size of 3) with no significant differences in pain or rescue anti-emetic use.

Limitations: Short duration, small study size, methodological issues (blinding, subjective outcomes, convenience sample).

Interpretation: In the ED adult patients with undifferentiated N/V, a trial of nasally inhaled isopropyl alcohol may provide short term nausea relief of up to 10 mins.

By: Dr. Mazen Jazi

Reference: Beadle KL, et al. Ann Emerg Med. 2016 Jul;68(1):1-9.e1.

Epi Lesson

Likert Scales 

Rensis Likert was an American social psychologist. His scales continue to be used to measure attitudes, values, opinions, pain, agreement, etc. They can be odd-numbered (including a mid-point) or not (forcing respondents to pick a side). Provide more (0-10) or less (1-5) granularity. They can use “ordinal” variables (e.g. SES= Low-Medium-High) with no fixed interval between categories, “interval” variables (e.g. annual income=$5k-$10k-$15k), or be “in between” (e.g. strongly agree-agree-neutral-disagree-strongly disagree).

By: Dr. Christian Vaillancourt

Hans Rosenberg
Dr. Rosenberg is an emergency physician at the Ottawa Hospital, assistant professor at the University of Ottawa, and Director of the Digital Scholarship and Knowledge Dissemination Program.